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9.12.06

El ciclo ovárico en la yegua

Frecuentes son las dudas y mitos sobre el ciclo ovárico (o estral) de las yeguas. En este apartado, intentaremos ofrecer una información correcta y que sea útil para todos aquellos que desean iniciarse algún día en este apasionante mundo de la cría y reproducción equina.

Para empezar debemos definir la palabra ciclo, que no es más que una sucesión de acontecimientos que se repiten de forma periódica. El ciclo ovárico de la yegua se divide en dos periodos, el estro ó celo, que tiene una duración aproximada de cinco días, y el diestro, que dura unos 15 días. Por lo que la duración total del ciclo es de veinte días.

Biológicamente, el estro es el espacio de tiempo durante el cual la yegua admite al semental, mientras que el diestro es el resto de días en que no lo admite.

Durante la fase de estro, el óvulo se desprende del ovario, por lo que está en disposición de ser fecundado por el espermatozoide del semental. Por otra parte, durante la fase de diestro el útero está preparado para acoger el óvulo fecundado (en el caso de que hubiese tenido lugar su fecundación). Si el óvulo no es fecundado, esta fase previa a la gestación termina, iniciándose una nueva fase de estro que proporciona otra oportunidad para el apareamiento y para la fecundación. Una vez que el huevo fecundado ha penetrado en el útero, el ciclo estral se interrumpe y la yegua mantiene una actividad sexual equivalente a la del diestro.

Entre una fase y otra, hay modificaciones tanto en los órganos reproductores de la yegua como en su comportamiento.

Estro
Durante el celo o estro, el tracto genital está relajado y su superficie lubricada por un revestimiento de mucus fluido. Los labios vulvares están engrosados y dilatados y su superficie humedecida con moco procedente de la vagina. Los músculos de la vulva permiten a la yegua aumentar o disminuir el diámetro longitudinal de la misma. En esta fase, y resumidamente, lo que ocurre es que el óvulo se desprende del folículo, coincidiendo con una conducta de aceptación del semental. El óvulo, junto con el líquido y restos del folículo roto, penetra en la trompa de Falopio, en la que se halla en disposición de ser fecundado por el semen del semental. Teóricamente, el semen debe hallarse en la trompa de Falopio antes de que tenga lugar la ovulación.

Si observamos el comportamiento, del día 0 al 5º día del estro, la yegua muestra la cola levantada, parpadeos del clítoris, el cuello uterino relajado y el tracto genital húmedo. Predominan la hormona estimulante del folículo (FSH) y el estrógeno. En el momento de la ovulación, predomina la hormona luteinizante (LH).

Si durante el estro ponemos a la yegua delante del semental, ésta separa las extremidades posteriores, levanta la cola y orina de forma intermitente eliminando un líquido amarillento de fuerte y característico olor. Con frecuencia se la ve separando los labios vulvares en su porción inferior, mostrando de esta forma el clítoris. También es posible observar como algunas yeguas estiran el cuello y la cabeza y encogen el belfo superior adoptando la llamada actitud de Flehmen. La existencia y la intensidad de estos síntomas varían en cada yegua, pero el síntoma decisivo de que la yegua se halla en celo es la complacencia con que ésta admite al semental durante el coito.

Diestro
El diestro es una fase de preparación para que pueda desarrollarse el embrión, el cual llega al útero el quinto o sexto día después de su fecundación. Durante este tiempo, la mucosa del útero se ha modificado pasando desde un estado de humedad a un estado seco y pegajoso. Si el óvulo no es fecundado, el tracto genital también pasa por esta fase de preparación, aunque se interrumpe bruscamente sobre el décimoquinto día para dar lugar a una nueva fase de estro, con lo cual se inicia un nuevo ciclo.

En esta fase, los labios vulvares se hallan acortados y secos, las mucosas de la vagina y del cuello uterino están pálidas y se hallan recubiertas de un moco pegajoso. El cuello uterino está cerrado herméticamente y el útero está tenso o turgente.

En cuanto al comportamiento, se puede observar que la yegua en presencia del semental, muestra las orejas hacia atrás, coceo, intenta morderle, etc. Hormonalmente, predomina la Progesterona. Esto comporta que la longitud de la vulva se acorte. Mantiene la cola constantemente adaptada sobre el periné, excepto cuando se dispone a orinar y es posible que la sacuda en presencia del semental.

Hacia la mitad del ciclo, aparece la FSH, hasta que llegados al día veinte, da comienzo un nuevo estro.


El ciclo ovárico en la práctica
En los hemisferios Norte y Sur, las yeguas presentan ciclos estrales a finales de la primavera y en verano. Fuera de estas estaciones del año no existe ciclo estral, diciéndose que la yegua se encuentra en fase de anestro. Esto tiene su explicación en la evolución, y es que los caballos (en estado salvaje) tienen más oportunidades de supervivencia si la cría de los potros tiene lugar durante el verano. En consecuencia, los potros nacen en primavera, época del año en que las condiciones climáticas y los pastos son más propicios tanto para la yegua en avanzado estado de gestación como para el potro recién nacido.

Aunque estos ciclos han sido manipulados al tener las yeguas estabuladas, para así poder obtener potros "precoces" (nacidos a principio de año).

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